ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE 

COMPOSITE ORDER






TUSCAN DORIC IONIC CORINTHIAN













HISTORY





























































COMPOSITE ORDER FEATURES

•  The column height is equal to (10) diameters.

•  Shaft is tapered and typically fluted with (24) flutes, but it can also be plain/smooth.

•  Instead of ending at the top & bottom of the column shaft, the flutes are typically rounded off instead.


•  The capital is similar in design to the Roman Corinthian capital, but it incorporates elements from the Ionic capital as well.  It has two rows of acanthus leaves around the capital.  The uppermost (3rd level) section is essentially an ionic capital, which showcases (8) volutes – diagonally situated – and supports a square abacus.

•  The Attic base is the correct base style to utilize, and it consists of (2) rings - an upper & lower (which is slightly larger than the upper) torus that is separated by a scotia (concave molding).  They rest on a square plinth.

•  The entablature consists of (3) sections (top to bottom):  the cornice, the frieze, and the architrave.  It is recognized as having elaborate ornamentation.

•  The cornice section of the entablature boasts elaborate embellishments, including intricate dentils, bracket-like details, and modillions.

•  The column is correlated to success, oppulence, victory, luxury, and grandeur.




CLASSICAL EXAMPLES


•  Triumphal Arch of Septimius Severus  |  (Rome, Italy)
    view  /


•  Thermae of Diocletian  |  (Rome, Italy)
   /  view  /


•  Arch of Titus  |  (Rome, Italy)
   /  view  /


•  Ospedale degli Innocenti  |  (Florence, Italy)
   /  view  /


•  Palazzo del Capitaniato  |  (Vicenza, Italy)
   /  view  /


•  Archbasilica of St. John Lateran |  (Rome, Italy)
   /  view  /





RECOMMENDED USES

•  For buildings that represent some sort of "victory" or "triumph."

•  For exterior & interior applications of Libraries.

•  For large, imposing buildings.

•  On the uppermost level of a building or home.  (i.e. If there are 3 levels to a building, then Composite columns would be featured on the third level).

•  For prestigious churches dedicated to the Virgin Mary or female saints.


•  The interior of large homes as room separators.

•  As supports for an archway.

•  On the exterior of large residences that possess imposing architectural features.

•  On memorial buildings that make a bold statement.

•  For residences that have lavish and luxurious architectural characteristics.

•  For prestigious federal buildings.

•  For Governors' mansions.

•  For projects that reflect richness and grandeur.








BIBLIOGRAPHY


Brandwein, Martin.  “CLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE:  A HANDBOOK OF THE TRADITION FOR TODAY.”  Institue of Classical Architecture & Art.  Web.  Oct.-Nov. 2017.

 

Onians, John.  Bearers of meaning:  The Classical Orders in Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Renaissance.  Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1990.

 

Stratton, Arthur.  The orders of architecture, Greek, Roman and Renaissance, with selected examples of their application shown on 80 plates.  London:  Studio Editions, 1986.