ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE 

CORINTHIAN ORDER






TUSCAN DORIC IONIC COMPOSITE













HISTORY





























































CORINTHIAN ORDER FEATURES

GREEK CORINTHIAN:

•  The column height is equal to (10) diameters.

•  Shaft is tapered and predominately fluted with (24) flutes, but it can also be plain/smooth.

•  Instead of ending at the top & bottom of the column shaft, the flutes are typically rounded off instead.


•  The capital is the most distinguishable aspect of the Greek Corinthian column.  This capital is certainly rare and developed in more detail with the Romans.  The structure is an inverted bell-shape with a lower level featuring acanthus leaves all the way around.  Above the acanthus leaves, and alternating between them, are water leaves.  The capital is separated from the shaft by an astragal (neck ring).

•  The Attic base is the correct base style to utilize, and it consists of (2) rings - an upper & lower torus that is separated by a scotia (concave molding), which rests on a square plinth.

•  The entablature consists of (3) sections (top to bottom):  the cornice, the frieze, and the architrave.  It is recognized as – along with the Composite Order – as the tallest entablatures of the Classical Orders.

•  The cornice section of the entablature boasts elaborate embellishments, including intricate dentils and bracket-like details.

•  The column is correlated to elegance, luxury, and oppulence.


ROMAN CORINTHIAN:

•  The column height is equal to (10) diameters.

•  Shaft is tapered and typically fluted with (24) flutes, but it can also be plain/smooth.

•  Instead of ending at the top & bottom of the column shaft, the flutes are typically rounded off instead.


•  The capital differed from the Greek version, most noticeably by having two tiers of (8) acanthus leaves all the way around the capital.  From the second tier of acanthus leaves rise (8) caulicoli, forming a third tier of ornamentation. 

•  The Attic base is the correct base style to utilize, and it consists of (2) rings - an upper & lower (which is slightly larger than the upper) torus that is separated by a scotia (concave molding).  They rest on a square plinth.

•  The entablature consists of (3) sections (top to bottom):  the cornice, the frieze, and the architrave.  It is recognized as having elaborate ornamentation.

•  The cornice section of the entablature boasts elaborate embellishments, including intricate dentils, modillions, and other circular ornamentations adorned with acanthus detailing.

•  The column is correlated to oppulence, sophistication, luxury, and grandeur.





CLASSICAL EXAMPLES


•  Tower of the Winds (Greek Corinthian)  |  (Athens, Greece)
    view  /


•  Choragic Monument of Lysicrates (Greek Corinthian) |  (Athens, Greece)
   /  view  /


•  Temple of Olympian Zeus (Roman Corinthian)  |  (Athens, Greece)
   /  view  /


•  Pantheon (Roman Corinthian)  |  (Rome, Italy)
   /  view  /


•  Maison Carrée (Roman Corinthian)  |  (Nimes, France)
   /  view  /






RECOMMENDED USES

•  For exterior & interior applications of Civic buildings. 

•  For exterior & interior applications of Religious buildings.

•  For large, imposing buildings.

•  For City Halls.

•  The interior of large homes as room separators.

•  On the exterior of large residences that possess imposing architectural features.

•  On memorial buildings that make a bold statement.

•  For residences that have lavish and luxurious architectural characteristics.

•  For prestigious federal buildings.

•  For projects that reflect supreme oppulence and grandeur.







BIBLIOGRAPHY


Brandwein, Martin.  “CLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE:  A HANDBOOK OF THE TRADITION FOR TODAY.”  Institue of Classical Architecture & Art.  Web.  Oct.-Nov. 2017.

 

Onians, John.  Bearers of meaning:  The Classical Orders in Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Renaissance.  Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1990.

 

Stratton, Arthur.  The orders of architecture, Greek, Roman and Renaissance, with selected examples of their application shown on 80 plates.  London:  Studio Editions, 1986.