ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE 

DORIC ORDER






TUSCAN IONIC CORINTHIAN COMPOSITE










































HISTORY





























































DORIC ORDER FEATURES

GREEK DORIC:

  The column height is between (4) and (6-1/2) diameters.

  Shaft is most often fluted with (20) shallow, vertical flutes.

  Capital consists of a square abacus and a rounded, convex echinus, below.

  No base.  Instead, Greek Doric columns sit directly on a stylobate (or a tiered step-like platform).

  The entablature consists of (3) sections (top to bottom):  the cornice, the frieze, and the architrave.  It is recognized as having minimal ornamentation.

  The frieze is recognized as having alternating triglyphs and metopes.

  The column is correlated to strength & stability.


ROMAN DORIC:

•  The column height is more slender and equal to (8) diameters.

•  Shaft is usually fluted but can also be plain/smooth. 

•  Capital is similar to the Tuscan capital, with an occasional addition of egg-and-dart ornamentation on the echinus.

•  The column's neck often boasted anywhere from (4) to (8) decorative rosettes.

•  There are two (2) appropriate Base styles – the Roman Doric & the Ionic (Attic).  The Roman Doric base consists of a single torus that rests on a square plinth.  The Attic base consists of (2) rings - an upper & lower torus that is separated by a scotia (concave molding).  They rest on a square plinth.

•  The height of the entablature is slightly reduced and – at the corner of the architrave – the triglyphs are centered over the column instead of covering the corners.

•  Although less-robust than the Greek Doric column, the Roman Doric column is still correlated to strength, sturdiness, and masculinity.





CLASSICAL EXAMPLES


•  Paestum (Greek Doric)  |  (Campania, Italy)
    view  /


•  Temple of the Delians (Greek Doric)  |  (Delos, Greece)
   /  view  /


•  Parthenon (Greek Doric)  |  (Athens, Greece)
   /  view  /


•  Tempietto of San Pietro (Roman Doric)  |  (Montorio, Rome, Italy)
   /  view  /


•  Theatre of Marcellus / First level (Roman Doric)  |  (Rome, Italy)
   /  view  /


•  Palace of Charles V  (Roman Doric)  |  (Granada, Spain)
   /  view  /





RECOMMENDED USES

•  For doorways and entrances where only a pair of columns is needed.

•  Porches (linear or wrap-around).

•  The lowest story of a building.

•  For the interior & exterior of church buildings.

•  For colonnades, walkways, and pergolas.

•  As interior room dividers – instead of walls.

•  For more simple-style homes / buildings where a sense of robustness is preferred.







BIBLIOGRAPHY


Brandwein, Martin.  “CLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE:  A HANDBOOK OF THE TRADITION FOR TODAY.”  Institue of Classical Architecture & Art.  Web.  Oct.-Nov. 2017.

 

Onians, John.  Bearers of meaning:  The Classical Orders in Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Renaissance.  Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1990.

 

Stratton, Arthur.  The orders of architecture, Greek, Roman and Renaissance, with selected examples of their application shown on 80 plates.  London:  Studio Editions, 1986.