ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE 

IONIC ORDER






TUSCAN DORIC CORINTHIAN COMPOSITE













HISTORY





























































IONIC ORDER FEATURES

GREEK IONIC:

•  The column height is equal to (9) diameters.

•  Shaft is tapered and usually fluted with (24) flutes, but it can also be plain/smooth.

•  Instead of ending at the top & bottom of the column shaft, the flutes are typically rounded off instead.


•  Capitals are most noticeable by volutes (scrolls) – which, in ancient times, mimicked the curls of a woman's hair.  Greek Ionic column examples have larger volutes (i.e. Erechtheum) than the Roman examples.  The capital is topped off with a rectangular abacus.

•  The Attic base is the correct base style to utilize, and it consists of (2) rings - an upper & lower torus that is separated by a scotia (concave molding).  Very early Attic Bases did not rest on a square plinth, but the Order has evolved to include a square plinth.

•  The entablature consists of (3) sections (top to bottom):  the cornice, the frieze, and the architrave.  It is recognized as having more ornamentation than the Tuscan & Doric Orders.

•  The cornice section of the entablature boasts intricate dentil details.

•  The column is correlated to femininity and elegance.


ROMAN IONIC:

•  The column height is equal to (9) diameters.

•  Shaft is tapered and usually fluted with (24) flutes, but it can also be plain/smooth.

•  Instead of ending at the top & bottom of the column shaft, the flutes are typically rounded off instead.


•  Capitals are most noticeable by volutes (scrolls) – which, in ancient times, mimicked the curls of a woman's hair.  Roman Ionic column examples have smaller volutes (i.e. Roman Ionic) than the Greek examples.  The capital is topped off with a rectangular abacus.

•  The Attic base is the correct base style to utilize, and it consists of (2) rings - an upper & lower (which is slightly larger than the upper) torus that is separated by a scotia (concave molding).  They rest on a square plinth.

•  The entablature consists of (3) sections (top to bottom):  the cornice, the frieze, and the architrave.  It is recognized as having elaborate ornamentation.

•  Garlands are regularly featured in the frieze section of the entablature.

•  The column is correlated to femininity, wisdom, and beauty.





CLASSICAL EXAMPLES


•  Erechtheion (Greek Ionic)  |  (Athens, Greece)
    view  /


•  Temple of Athena Nike (Greek Ionic)  |  (Athens, Greece)
   /  view  /


•  Temple of Apollo Epicurius, Bassae (Greek Ionic)  |  (Ancient Greece)
   /  view  /


•  Temple of Portunus (Roman Ionic)  |  (Rome, Italy)
   /  view  /


•  Second level of the Colosseum (Roman Ionic)  |  (Rome, Italy)
   /  view  /


•  Theatre of Marcellus / Second level (Roman Ionic)  |  (Rome, Italy)
   /  view  /





RECOMMENDED USES

•  For exterior residential front entryways.

•  For Cultural Arts buildings.

•  For second stories applications.

•  On upper balconies and decks.

•  For interior & exterior projects that require elegance and sophistication.

•  For university buildings.

•  For judicial buildings.







BIBLIOGRAPHY


Brandwein, Martin.  “CLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE:  A HANDBOOK OF THE TRADITION FOR TODAY.”  Institue of Classical Architecture & Art.  Web.  Oct.-Nov. 2017.

 

Onians, John.  Bearers of meaning:  The Classical Orders in Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Renaissance.  Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1990.

 

Stratton, Arthur.  The orders of architecture, Greek, Roman and Renaissance, with selected examples of their application shown on 80 plates.  London:  Studio Editions, 1986.