ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE 

TUSCAN ORDER






DORIC IONIC CORINTHIAN COMPOSITE













HISTORY





























































TUSCAN ORDER FEATURES

•  The column height is equal to (7) diameters.

•  The column shaft is usually un-fluted (plain/smooth).

•  Very simple entablature – no ornamentation, no triglyphs, no guttae.

•  The capital consists of a square abacus and a rounded echinus, below.

•  The base consists of a square plinth and a rounded torus, above.

•  Described by Italian architect, Sebastiano Serlio, as "the solidest and least ornate" of the five orders.




CLASSICAL EXAMPLES


•  Colonnades at St. Peter's Square  |  (Rome)
    view  /


•  Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus  |  (Rome)
   /  view  /


•  Lower level of the Colosseum  |  (Rome)
   /  view  /


•  St. Paul's Church  |  (Covent Garden, London)
   /  view  /


•  Christ Church, Spitalfields  |  (London)
   /  view  /


•  Temple of Piety  |  (Yorkshire)
   /  view  /





RECOMMENDED USES

•  For doorways and entrances where only a pair of columns is needed.

•  Porches (linear or wrap-around).

•  The lowest story of a building.

•  The façade of a Bank building.

•  For colonnades, walkways, and pergolas.

•  As interior room dividers – instead of walls.

•  For more simple-style homes / buildings where a sense of robustness is preferred.







BIBLIOGRAPHY


Brandwein, Martin.  “CLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE:  A HANDBOOK OF THE TRADITION FOR TODAY.”  Institue of Classical Architecture & Art.  Web.  Oct.-Nov. 2017.

 

Onians, John.  Bearers of meaning:  The Classical Orders in Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Renaissance.  Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1990.

 

Stratton, Arthur.  The orders of architecture, Greek, Roman and Renaissance, with selected examples of their application shown on 80 plates.  London:  Studio Editions, 1986.